Several theoretical propositions exist that attempt to account for the relationship between high event frequency gambling participation and disordered gambling For instance, the rapid sequencing of gambling stimuli accompanied with reward (i.e., ‘the constant cycling of player action’; Dow-Schull, 2012) means that that fast, rhythmic, and continuous nature of EGM gambling facilitates an immersive state of lowered conscious awareness for peripheral information. This may give rise to the gambler experiencing a dissociative state, and it has been argued that such psychological states, facilitated by games with fast speeds, are pleasurable to the gambler (Griffiths et al. 2006). During such dissociative experiences, the need for more conscious and deliberate decision-making is limited, providing negative reinforcement to gamble by reducing tension and escaping wider psychological distress that may be experienced in everyday life (Fang and Mowen 2009). However, Norman and Shallice (1986) argue that there are specific situations where the routine activation of behaviour, at the expense of top-down executive control, is maladaptive. Unsurprisingly, among the situations Norman and Shallice (1986) identify include those where potential danger can be experienced, or situations that require planning and decision-making. Given that gambling is a situation requiring the constant updating of goals and adjustment of behaviour, as well as a situation where harm may be experienced, it may be maladaptive for gambling features such as speed of play to facilitate dissociative experiences., फाफाफा सोना. The appeal of games with fast speeds of play, particularly amongst problem gamblers, may also be explained by Gray’s (1970) Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory. The theory postulates that the Behavioural Approach System (BAS) motivates behaviour to seek out reward (Gray 1981, 1991). The subsequent reward, which is exciting and pleasurable to the individual, reinforces the behaviour and consequently leaves individuals highly sensitive to potential rewards and makes extinction of the behaviour difficult. Pickering and Gray (1999) argue that dopaminergic fibres ascending from both the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental areas of the brain, that innervate the basal ganglia, together with motor, sensorimotor, and prefrontal regions, are assumed to drive this system. It has been demonstrated that those with abnormalities in dopaminergic functioning, as well as ventro-medial prefrontal cortex structures, are at risk of developing problem gambling due to abnormalities in the way reward and punishment is processed (Goudriaan et al. 2004). Therefore, it is perhaps unsurprising that gamblers with increased sensitivity to reward will be attracted to games with high event frequencies, as such games are more likely to provide increased levels of reward in a relatively shorter period of time. Alternatively, sensitivity to punishment or loss is seen as a protective factor in the persistence of risk-taking behaviour (e.g., Gray 1991). Games with high event frequencies also deliver relatively higher rates of loss, and therefore conceptually, one could predict that such factors result in fast games being avoided for gamblers with higher levels of punishment sensitivity. Paradoxically, research demonstrates that this is not the case for gamblers with high levels of sensitivity to reward and punishment. For example, Gaher et al. (2015) argue that the increased sensitivity to punishment results in further gambling to alleviate the negative mood state caused by the loss, which results in loss-chasing behaviours. As a result, reinforcement sensitivity theory is able to predict that those high in either reward sensitivity, and/or punishment sensitivity, would be attracted to and persist on games with fast speeds of play for different reasons. The rapid and continuous pace of play afforded by gambling games with high event frequencies may potentially interfere with a gamblers’ ability to process new information, update goals, and/or make adjustments in their behaviour to avoid undesirable consequences. Response modulation is a cognitive process whereby the individual disengages attention on the ongoing activity to re-evaluate and adjust behaviour according to the current reinforcement rate of the behaviour in question (e.g., Derevensky et al. 2011). Behavioural perseverance despite negative consequence is a hallmark sign of a wide range of clinical disorders including psychopathy (Newman et al. 1987), borderline personality disorder (Davey 2008), and disordered gambling (Thompson and Corr 2013). Consequently, if a gambler is not afforded the opportunity to pause and reflect between gambling events, it is less likely that they will respond adaptively to punishment (e.g., financial loss). High event frequency games allow less opportunity for such reflection and adaptation of behaviour and are therefore more likely to lead to behaviour symptomatic of problem gambling. In support of this notion, experimental evidence suggests that when problem gamblers are forced to pause for five seconds between events, they do not persist in gambling longer than non-problem gamblers (Corr and Thompson 2014; Thompson and Corr 2013). However, it is unclear whether this effect is due to increased reflection time, or more simply, that the pause made the game less enjoyable. Both factors are not necessarily mutually exclusive. Whilst these theoretical models have high face validity in explaining why fast speeds of play are associated with disordered gambling, a significant problem remains in that the empirical relationship is largely correlational. The argument can be made that a weak empirical association between fast speeds of play and disordered gambling is potentially harmful to scientific research into this relationship, as it assumes an extensive knowledge-base has already been established. Therefore, one of the goals of the present review is to identify the gaps in the current understanding relating to the impact of high event frequency on gamblers across the entire spectrum of problem gambling behaviour. An additional reason for carrying out the present review paper is to collectively establish what is already known in terms of the psychological and behavioural factors that high event frequency games impact. This is to facilitate the development of gambling harm-minimisation approaches which focus on specific factors that enhance a gamblers’ self-control. As far as the authors are aware, no previous literature review has ever examined speed of play in gambling as the single focus although more general reviews of structural characteristics in gambling have devoted small sections of such overviews to theoretical descriptions of event frequency (e.g., Griffiths 1993; McCormack and Griffiths 2013; Parke and Griffiths 2006, 2007). No Deposit Casino Bonus, फाफाफा सोना. Reputation: 5/5. Jackpot City is actually one of the longest-standing Canadian online casinos, having been around since 1998. Over the years, it’s cemented its reputation as one of the go-to casinos for epic payouts, and – from what we can see – it’s never run into negative press. What’s more, it’s kept up with the times in terms of the quality of its games, its mobile-friendliness, and its modern user interface, फाफाफा सोना. 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